Biofuel Sources - CPO, PAO, HACPO & PKS
SPB has secured allocations under term contract agreements for CPO, PAO, HACPO and PKS from Palm Oil Mills and are committed to our clients to supply these commodities on spot and long term contracts to our existing and new clients and countries that are commitment to reducing Green House Gases (GHG's).
Crude Palm Oils (CPO) is widely know for its uses and now is extensively being used in the production of Cooking Oils and Margarine as well as for bio-diesel.
Palm Acid Oil (PAO) is used as distilled fatty acid for bio-diesel feedstock, animal feeds and in soap making, derived from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). PAO is a by-product of the chemical refining of palm oil and consists of FFA (over 50%) and neutral oil, with 2-3% moisture. It is very similar to palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), but its FFA is generally lower.
High Acid Crude Palm Oil (HACPO or ACPO) is another bio-diesel feedstock with an of FFA 8~15% that is also used to produced bio-diesel which meets international bio-diesel standards such as EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Perchloric acid shows high catalytic activity for the conversion of FFA to FAME that can be used to treat a wide range of acidic oils and fats as well.
Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) up until 2014 was considered a waste that could not be utilized and was use by mills for road maintenance. Since 2014, PKS is increasing in demand and being used as an alternative clean bio-fuel alternative of the future. Many power producers in Japan and Korea have turned to PKS as a co-fired fuel as an additional fuel for use in coal fired power stations as well as new PKS bio-fuel power stations now being built in Japan and Korea.
All of these palm products supplement are supplied by SPB as feedstock to our clients who are committed to a green future by reducing GHG's.